Before the advent of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), transactions were done manually and these were prompt to errors and delayed in time of delivery and to overcome these problems, information and communication technology (ICT) was introduced to speed up the transaction and minimise errors of human nature.
In the case of ICT in the educational institution, even more, concerns have to be considered. Educational research studies show that programmes of professional development for student, academicians, and non- academicians who work in an educational institution are most effective if directed to the stage of ICT development reached by schools.
The implications of these research findings are the student, academicians and non academicians in educational sector development their best concerned as an on-going process, with many professional development activities conducted in schools.
Following the world summit on the information society (WSIS) in Geneva (2003) and Tunis (2005), the Partnership for measuring ICT for development was formed to develop comparable data and indicator for monitoring WSIS goals.
The Partnership comprises Eurostat, ITU, OECD, UNCTAD, UNDESA, the UNESCO institute for statistics (UIS), UN Regional commissions (UNECLAC, UNESCWA, UNESCAP, UNECA) and the World Bank. Within this framework, the primary assignment of UIS is to lead the Task Force responsible for developing indicators on information and technologies (ICT).
Emergence of information and communication technology on the national agenda and the announcement of ICT policies by various countries have recognised the “convergence of core technologies, distant learning, and E- Governance” has the tools for sustainable development and globalisation of the economy.
This seminar paper is designed to assist countries in developing their capacity and monitoring national goals. Its aim is also to set a standard in the rapidly-changing field where technologies induce the use of new devices, and advantages and disadvantages of emerging information and communication technology.
Since the introduction of information and communication technology (ICT), their integration into the global economy has been policy concerns in many countries. The initiatives that were taken to give ICT a place in education have resulted in a need to monitor these developments, using reliable and valid indicator. Once these indicators are available through standardised international data collection effort, policymakers can view the progress of their countries over time in comparison with their nationally defined targets and other relevant reference countries.
It is believed that the use of ICT in education can increase access to learning opportunity. It can help to enhance the quality of education with advance teaching methods, improve learning, supplement traditional learning, and increase e-transaction in the various institutions of the economy.
Yet, a recent outcomes and enable reformed or better management of education systems. “knowledge mapping” exercise conducted by the world bank’s information for development programme (InfoDev) (Tucano,2005), review that despite decades of large investment in ICT to benefit education in OECD countries, and its increase use of ICT in developing countries, data to support the perceived benefit from ICT are limited and evidences of effective impact is elusive or even debatable.
These findings highlighted various knowledge gaps and underscored the need for internally accepted standards, methodologies and indicators to better measure the real benefit of ICT in the education.
This lack of reliable quality data, in addition to the absent of standardised guidelines for establishing relevant comparable indicators, hinder policymakers in making the informed decision or in demonstrating greater commitment to integrating ICT into their education system.
Measuring the contribution of ICT to development was a major concern at the two world summit on the information society (WSIS), held in Geneva in 2003 and Tunis in 2005. The “Follow-up and Evaluation” section (E.28) of the WSIS Plan of Action outlines the objectives of measuring ICT for development. It invites the international community to develop methodologies with realistic matrices to establish internationally comparable and policy-relevant indicators in other to track the progress of countries towards digital inclusiveness. An excerpt from the E.28 state:
“A realistic international performance evaluation and benchmarking (both qualitative and quantitative) through comparable statistical indicator and research result should be developed to follow up the implementation of the objectives, goals and target in the Plan of Action, taking into account different national circumstances”. (WSIS, 2003)
In response, the Partnership on measuring ICT fore development was formed in June 2004. Its current members includes Eurostat, ITU, OECD, UNCTAD, UNDESA, the UNESCO institute for statistics (UIS), UN Regional commissions (UNACLAC, UNESCWA, UNESCAP and UNECA) and the World Bank.
The aim of this seminar paper is to build on the core emerging information and communication technology in global education by further refining them and suggesting an expanded list of measures in other to address a wider range of policy concerns.
3.0 MEANING OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)
Information and communication technology is techniques employed in acquiring, processing, storage and dissemination of audio, video, pictorial, textual And other discrete information with the aids of electronics computing devices and communication gadgets.
It actually combines computing with high speed communication links carrying information of differing sorts as sound, video, text or ordinary images. Technologies such as cell phones, pagers fax machines, and a portable computer has reduced the meaning attached to physical location in terms of time, work, and leisure to mere formalities.
On the other hand Education is the act of teaching, learning, schooling, tutoring and impacting knowledge to others; mostly here knowledge of ICT is very important. However the act of learning, usage, advantages and disadvantage is very crucial in life today because the world has been globalised through usage of ICT.
The term ICT is now also used to refer to the merging (convergence) of audio-visual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system. There are large economic incentives (huge cost savings due to elimination of the telephone network) to merge the audio-visual, building management and telephone network with the computer network system using a single unified system of cabling, signal distribution and management.
ICT is used as a general term for all kinds of technologies which enable users to create access and manipulate information. ICT is a combination of information technology and communications technology.
3.1 PURPOSE FOR INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) TO EDUCATION
ICT in education cannot be overemphasizes because of the important of distant learning, E- Learning in all educational institution and its important and the role it play to student and researchers. However, there are various reasons why information and communication technology (ICT) are necessary, here are some purposes:
- To maximize the available information
- To save time and service delivery
- To reduce cost of running an educational institution
- To reduce complexities in an in an educational institution
- To understand how best to use systematic approach in processing and management of information in an educational institution
- To improve on the quality of production.
- To teach the student on how to use ICT effectively.
3.2 The Ethics of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education
By the ethics of information and communication technology will mean the principle of values governing the use of telecommunication gadgets in relation to information dissemination in an institution. Some of these ethics are highlighted below:
- Complexity: The internal working of information and communication technology (ICT) is so complex that not even the manufacturers or the system designers can effective describe the workings.
- Speed: Storage, retrieval, and transmission of great amount of information require greater speed and scale not obtainable before. This is essentially necessary in the area of data security and personal privacy. It is worth knowing that information can never be considered totally secure against access.
- Predictability: Information and communication technology is less predictable and reliable when compared to other pervasive technologies as electricity, television, and automobiles. This is because computers and communications require more spontaneous responses especially in real time transaction.
In current education systems worldwide, ICTs have not been as extensively implemented as might be found in other fields, such as business. Reasons for the absence of these technologies in education vary. Some experts suggest it is the high costs associated with implementing these technologies that prevents schools from using them in the classroom.
Other experts argue that the social nature of current education systems, which require a substantial amount of personal contact between teachers and their students, prevents these technologies from being better integrated in the classroom setting.
3.3 Uses of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
The use of ICTs in education extends beyond equipping classrooms with computers and an Internet connection. There is a wide variety of ICTs currently available to schools and universities that can be implemented to enhance students’ overall learning experiences in numerous ways. Those schools and universities that have implemented ICTs primarily use these technologies to fulfil three objectives:
- Increase Networking Opportunities: ICTs helps connect schools to other schools, as well as individuals within those schools to one another. This ability to network is especially important for students in rural areas and students in developing countries.
- Provide Distance Learning: With the advent of ICTs, learning has become Web-based. As a result, ICTs have started to replace correspondence schools.
- Supplement Traditional Learning: One of the most common uses of ICTs in education involves students using software programs such as Microsoft Word to produce otherwise traditional written assignments.
- Information management: ICTs has really helped to received and send information to all organisations. Also, it helps in data collect and information retrieval.
- Business transactions and control: Some business organisations are flourishing simply because of easy access to information and transaction, i.e. e-transaction for example banking industry and the likes.
- Advantages of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education
As with other technologies that have been implemented in education throughout the years, ICTs offer a number of advantages to both students and educators when successfully integrated into a learning environment. Some of these advantages include:
- Increased Access to Resources: Unlike the traditional classroom that is locked at the end of the school day, ICTs allow students to access educational resources from anywhere at any time. This increased access to resources is especially valuable for students with special needs and those students who live in rural areas or developing countries.
- Interactive Learning Experiences: Many educators deliver information to their students in the form of lectures. ICTs allow students to access information through videos, podcasts, and a variety of other interactive media, which creates a more engaging learning experience for students. E.g. NOUN and many other distance learning institutions.
- Student-Centred Learning: In a traditional classroom, students cannot control how lessons are planned. Through the use of ICTs, students can take control of their learning experiences. Students can decide when the class is in session, as well as how the lesson material will be presented. .e.g. NOUN and many other distance learning institutions.
3.5 Disadvantages of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education
Although ICTs can enhance student learning in many ways, there are some disadvantages associated with implementing these sophisticated technologies in schools and universities around the world. Some of these disadvantages include:
- High Costs: Implementing ICTs in the education setting can be quite costly regarding updating existing infrastructures, training teachers and developing quality course materials. To make matters worse, funding for such projects is often scarce.
- Teacher Training: Many teachers are unfamiliar with using ICTs in the classroom and are resistant to incorporating such technologies into their established pedagogies. To succeed, the use of ICTs in education needs to be supported by well-trained teachers.
- Uncertain Success Rates: Currently, no large-scale studies have been conducted that show whether or not the use of ICTs in an educational setting will result in a measurable increase in individual student achievement, making school administrators hesitant to invest in these technologies. Despite existing research and evidence-based studies, the future of ICTs in education remains unclear. Additional research is needed to better understand if a link exists between the use of ICTs in education and improved student learning.
3.6 Careers in Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
There are a variety of career opportunities available for beginning and experienced ICT professionals. Computer Information Systems Managers oversee all technical aspect of an organization, such as software development, network security, and Internet operations.
People who enjoy designing software programs might be interested in a career as a Computer Programmer. Teamwork is essential for Computer Software Engineers, who might work with a large group to solve problems and create new products.
Even those who travel or telecommute must typically report to a team or management structure. Database Administrators (DBA), use software to store and manage information.
They also set up database systems and are responsible for making sure those systems operate efficiently. Statisticians collect data and analyze it, looking for patterns that explain behaviour or describe the world as it is.
4.0 Summary/ Conclusion
This seminar paper presentation emphasised the meaning surrounding the concept of “emerging information and communication technology in Education”, the purpose we need information and communication technology in Education, the ethics employs in the usage of these technologies, advantages and disadvantages of information and communication technology in our educational sector. Also there are various career provisions since the advent of information and communication technology.
By Aderinto Muhammad Jamiu, who is a Student of the School of Science and Technology, National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN)